Introduction of Best Affiliate Programs for Beginners
Ultimate Guide to the Best Affiliate Programs for Beginners – Affiliate marketing has emerged as a lucrative opportunity for beginners looking to generate passive income online. By promoting products or services through affiliate programs, individuals can earn commissions for every sale, lead, or click generated through their unique affiliate links. However, with numerous affiliate programs available, it can be overwhelming for beginners to determine which ones best fit their needs.
This comprehensive guide will explore the best affiliate programs specifically tailored for beginners. Whether you’re starting a blog, running a YouTube channel, or simply looking to monetize your online presence, this guide will provide you with valuable insights and recommendations to kickstart your affiliate marketing journey.
We will begin by delving into the fundamentals of affiliate programs, explaining their role and importance in the online business ecosystem. You will clearly understand how these programs function, the different types of affiliate programs available, and the advantages they offer. Additionally, we’ll explore affiliate networks and their benefits in connecting affiliates with a wide range of advertisers.
Next, we will dive into the key factors beginners should consider when choosing an affiliate program. From relevance to your niche and target audience to commission rates, cookie durations, and the quality of products or services offered, we will provide you with a comprehensive checklist to evaluate potential affiliate programs effectively. Understanding these factors allows you to make informed decisions and maximize your earnings.
The core of this guide lies in the detailed analysis of the top affiliate programs for beginners. We will focus on renowned programs such as Amazon Associates, ClickBank, ShareASale, CJ Affiliate, and Impact. We will overview each program, highlight the key benefits, and offer practical tips to optimize your earnings. Additionally, we will explore other prominent affiliate programs worth considering, such as Rakuten Marketing, eBay Partner Network, Shopify Affiliate Program, Awin, and FlexOffers.
We will share essential tips and strategies to ensure your success in affiliate marketing. The areas we will cover will be building a solid online presence, creating high-quality content, leveraging SEO techniques, and utilizing social media and email marketing. Implementing these proven strategies can attract more visitors, increase conversions, and boost your affiliate earnings.
Finally, we will wrap up this guide by summarizing the key points discussed and providing the encouragement and motivation you need to embark on your affiliate marketing journey. Affiliate marketing is a dynamic field, so staying updated with industry trends and continuously adapting your strategies will be crucial for long-term success.
Get ready to explore the best affiliate programs for beginners and unlock the potential to earn passive income from the comfort of your own home. Let’s dive in and discover the exciting world of affiliate marketing!
Explanation of affiliate marketing and its potential for beginners
Affiliate marketing is a popular online business model that offers tremendous potential for beginners to generate income. In simple terms, affiliate marketing involves promoting products or services through unique affiliate links. When a customer makes a purchase or takes a specific action through the affiliate’s link, the affiliate earns a commission.
One of the key advantages of affiliate marketing for beginners is its accessibility. You don’t need to create your products or handle inventory. Instead, you can focus on promoting existing products and earning a commission for each successful referral. This eliminates the need for significant upfront investment and reduces the barriers to entry.
Affiliate marketing also provides flexibility and scalability. Beginners can choose products or services within their niche of interest, allowing them to align their promotional efforts with their passion. As you gain experience and build a solid foundation, you can expand your affiliate marketing endeavors to include multiple products and even explore different niches.
The potential for earnings in affiliate marketing is virtually unlimited. As a beginner, you can earn modest commissions and gradually scale your efforts to generate substantial passive income. With the right strategies and consistent effort, affiliate marketing has the potential to provide a sustainable and reliable income stream.
Importance of choosing the right affiliate program
Choosing the right affiliate program is crucial for the success of beginners in affiliate marketing. The program you select will impact your earning potential, the quality of products or services you promote, and the overall support and resources available. Here’s why choosing the right affiliate program is important:
Relevance and Fit: Selecting an affiliate program that aligns with your niche and target audience is essential. Promoting products or services that resonate with your audience increases the likelihood of conversions and generates higher commissions.
Commission Structure: Different affiliate programs offer varying commission rates and payment structures. It’s important to consider the commission percentage and any additional incentives or bonuses that may be available.
Product/Service Quality: The reputation and quality of the products or services you promote directly impact your credibility as an affiliate. Choosing an affiliate program with high-quality offerings enhances your brand image and encourages customer trust and satisfaction.
Affiliate Support and Resources: Look for affiliate programs that provide comprehensive support, training materials, and resources to assist beginners. This can include marketing materials, tracking tools, dedicated affiliate managers, and a responsive support team.
Tracking and Analytics: A good affiliate program should provide robust tracking and analytics capabilities. This allows you to monitor your performance, track conversions, and optimize your strategies.
By selecting the right affiliate program, beginners can set themselves up for success, maximize their earning potential, and build long-term relationships with reputable brands and advertisers.
Overview of the blog’s structure and key points
The blog will follow a structured approach to guide beginners through affiliate marketing and help them choose the best affiliate programs. Here is an overview of the blog’s structure and key points:
Introduction: The introduction will briefly explain affiliate marketing and highlight its potential for beginners. It will emphasize the accessibility, flexibility, and earning potential of affiliate marketing.
Explanation of Affiliate Marketing: This section will delve deeper into affiliate marketing, covering the basic principles, the role of affiliates, and the process of earning commissions through affiliate links.
Benefits and Advantages: The blog will outline the various benefits and advantages of affiliate marketing for beginners. It will discuss the low barriers to entry, the ability to choose products within a niche, and the scalability of earnings.
Importance of Choosing the Right Affiliate Program: This section will emphasize the significance of selecting the right affiliate program. It will highlight relevance, commission structure, product/service quality, affiliate support, and tracking and analytics.
Factors to Consider: The blog will explore the key factors beginners should consider when choosing an affiliate program. It will discuss the importance of relevance to their niche and target audience, the commission rates and payment structure, the quality of products or services, the affiliate support and resources provided, and the tracking and analytics capabilities.
Top Affiliate Programs: This section will highlight the best affiliate programs for beginners. It will provide comprehensive overviews and insights into programs such as Amazon Associates, ClickBank, ShareASale, CJ Affiliate, and Impact. Each program will discuss its benefits, product range, and strategies for optimizing earnings.
Other Prominent Affiliate Programs: The blog will also touch upon other notable affiliate programs that beginners can explore, including Rakuten Marketing, eBay Partner Network, Shopify Affiliate Program, Awin, and FlexOffers. Brief descriptions and key features of these programs will be provided.
Essential Tips for Success: The blog will offer tips and strategies for beginners to succeed in affiliate marketing. It will cover aspects such as building a strong online presence, creating high-quality content, leveraging SEO techniques, utilizing social media and email marketing, tracking affiliate performance, and staying updated with industry trends.
By following this structured approach, beginners will understand affiliate marketing comprehensively, learn how to select the most suitable affiliate program and acquire essential tips to succeed in their affiliate marketing endeavors.
Understanding Affiliate Programs
Definition and role of an affiliate program
An affiliate program is a partnership between an advertiser (merchant) and individuals or entities (affiliates) who promote the advertiser’s products or services in exchange for a commission. The affiliate program provides affiliates with unique tracking links or codes to identify their referrals and track their performance. The role of an affiliate program is to facilitate the tracking, reporting, and payment process for affiliates.
Benefits and drawbacks of joining an affiliate program
Joining an affiliate program offers several benefits for individuals looking to earn income online. First and foremost, it provides a potential source of passive income, as affiliates can earn commissions for sales or actions generated through their referrals. Affiliate programs also require a minimal upfront investment, making them accessible to beginners. Additionally, affiliates can choose from a wide range of products or services to promote, allowing them to align their efforts with their niche and interests.
However, there are also drawbacks to consider. Earnings in affiliate programs are typically performance-based, meaning that affiliates need to drive conversions to generate income. This requires dedicated effort and effective marketing strategies. Additionally, affiliates’ success depends on the quality of the products or services they promote. If the advertiser fails to deliver on their promises, it can negatively impact the affiliate’s reputation.
Different types of affiliate programs
Affiliate programs come in various types, each with its payment structure. Common types include:
Pay-per-sale (PPS): Affiliates earn a commission for each sale made through their referral link. This is the most common type of affiliate program.
Pay-per-lead (PPL): Affiliates earn a commission when their referral generates a qualified lead, such as filling out a form or signing up for a free trial.
Pay-per-click (PPC): Affiliates earn a commission based on the number of clicks their referral generates, regardless of whether a sale or lead occurs.
Each type has advantages and may be suitable for different affiliate marketing strategies.
How affiliate networks work and their advantages
Affiliate networks act as intermediaries between advertisers and affiliates. They provide a platform where advertisers can list their affiliate programs, and affiliates can find and join multiple programs. Affiliate networks offer several advantages, including:
Convenient Access: Affiliates can find and join multiple affiliate programs within a single network, simplifying the management of their affiliate activities.
Wide Range of Advertisers: Affiliate networks typically have a diverse pool of advertisers, offering affiliates a wide selection of products and services to promote.
Centralized Tracking and Reporting: Networks provide tracking and reporting tools that help affiliates monitor their performance across various programs, simplifying, analyzing, and optimizing campaigns.
Consolidated Payments: Instead of receiving separate payments from each advertiser, affiliates receive consolidated payments from the network, streamlining the financial aspect of affiliate marketing.
Affiliate networks bring efficiency and convenience to affiliate marketing, making them an attractive option for advertisers and affiliates.
Factors to Consider When Choosing an Affiliate Program
Relevance to your niche and target audience
One of the crucial factors to consider when choosing an affiliate program is its relevance to your niche and target audience. The products or services you promote should align with your content and resonate with your audience’s interests. Selecting an affiliate program that complements your niche increases the chances of attracting engaged and interested customers, leading to higher conversion rates and earning potential.
Commission rates and payment structure
An affiliate program’s commission rates and payment structure play a significant role in determining your earnings. Compare the commission percentages different programs offer and assess whether they provide competitive rates within your industry. Additionally, consider the payment structure—some programs may offer a flat commission per sale, while others may provide tiered or performance-based incentives. Choose a program that offers a fair commission structure that aligns with your expectations and goals.
Cookie duration and attribution model
The cookie duration refers to the length of time an affiliate receives credit for a referral after a user clicks on their affiliate link. A longer cookie duration increases the chance of generating commissions even if the user purchases after some time. Additionally, consider the program’s attribution model, as some programs may credit the sale to the last affiliate link clicked. In contrast, others may use a first-click or multi-touch attribution model. Understanding these factors will help you choose a program with favorable cookie durations and attribution models.
Quality of products/services offered
The quality of the products or services an affiliate program offers greatly impacts your credibility as an affiliate. Ensure the program provides high-quality offerings that align with your standards and values. Conduct thorough research to assess the reputation of the advertiser, the customer reviews and feedback, and the overall satisfaction of previous customers. Promoting quality products or services enhances your reputation and builds trust with your audience, increasing the likelihood of successful conversions.
Affiliate support and resources provided
Consider the level of support and resources provided by the affiliate program. Look for programs offering comprehensive affiliate support, such as dedicated affiliate managers, prompt communication channels, and timely assistance with queries or issues. Additionally, assess the availability of marketing materials, such as banners, text links, or product images, which can facilitate your promotional efforts. Access to valuable resources, training materials, and reporting tools can further enhance your success as an affiliate.
Reputation and reliability of the affiliate program
Before committing to an affiliate program:
- Evaluate its reputation and reliability within the industry.
- Research the program’s track record, including its longevity, reputation among affiliates, and promptness in making payments.
- Look for reviews and testimonials from other affiliates to gauge their experiences and satisfaction with the program.
Choosing a reputable and reliable affiliate program ensures you partner with a trustworthy entity and minimizes the risk of encountering issues or non-payment.
When choosing an affiliate program, considering these factors will enable you to make informed decisions that align with your niche, maximize your earnings, and provide a positive experience for you and your audience.
Top Affiliate Programs for Beginners
Overview of the program and its benefits
Amazon Associates is one of the most popular and beginner-friendly affiliate programs available. As an affiliate, you can promote a vast array of products available on Amazon’s platform and earn commissions for qualifying purchases made through your referral links. The program provides beginners with a user-friendly interface, an easy setup process, and access to Amazon’s trusted brand and reputation.
One of the key benefits of Amazon Associates is its global reach, allowing affiliates to target customers worldwide. Additionally, the program offers competitive commission rates, varying depending on the product category. Affiliates can earn up to 10% in referral fees, significantly contributing to their earnings.
Exploring the wide range of products available
Amazon Associates provides access to various products across various categories, including electronics, home and kitchen, fashion, books, and more. This extensive product selection allows affiliates to find products that align with their niche and target audience. Whether you have a tech-focused blog or a fashion-oriented website, you can find relevant products to promote through Amazon Associates.
Tips for optimizing earnings on Amazon Associates
To maximize your earnings with Amazon Associates, consider implementing the following strategies:
a. Product Research: Conduct thorough product research to identify popular and in-demand items within your niche. Look for products with positive reviews, high ratings, and a good sales history to increase the chances of conversions.
b. Content Creation: Create high-quality, engaging content that effectively promotes the products. Write informative product reviews, comparison articles, or curated lists to provide value to your audience and encourage them to purchase through your links.
c. SEO Optimization: Implement SEO strategies such as keyword research, optimizing product titles and descriptions, and building backlinks to improve search engine rankings. This can drive organic traffic to your content and increase the visibility of your affiliate links.
d. Promotional Techniques: Utilize various promotional techniques such as social media marketing, email marketing, and influencer collaborations to expand your reach and attract more potential buyers.
e. Tracking and Analytics: Regularly monitor your performance through Amazon Associates’ tracking and analytics tools. This will help you identify the most successful campaigns, track conversions, and optimize your promotional efforts.
By leveraging the benefits of Amazon Associates and implementing effective strategies, beginners can generate a steady income stream and gain valuable experience in affiliate marketing.
Introduction to ClickBank and its unique features:
ClickBank is a renowned affiliate marketplace that connects affiliates with digital product creators. It stands out for its extensive collection of digital products, including e-books, online courses, software, and membership programs. ClickBank offers a user-friendly platform with easy sign-up and product promotion processes. One of its unique features is its focus on information products, making it an ideal choice for affiliates in self-help, health and fitness, and online marketing.
Popular product categories and niches on ClickBank:
ClickBank hosts a wide range of product categories, catering to diverse niches. Some popular categories include self-help, health and wellness, business and investing, and arts and entertainment. Affiliates can explore these categories to find products that align with their interests and target audience. The platform also provides tools and data to help affiliates identify high-converting products and trending niches.
Strategies for success with ClickBank:
To succeed with ClickBank, consider the following strategies:
a. Niche Selection: Identify a niche with a strong demand for digital products. Conduct market research to understand the target audience’s needs and preferences.
b. Product Evaluation: Carefully evaluate the products on ClickBank, considering product quality, commission rates, sales history, and customer reviews. Choose products that are in high demand and offer competitive commissions.
c. Content Marketing: Create compelling content highlighting the benefits and features of the products you promote. Utilize persuasive copywriting techniques and incorporate visuals to attract and engage your audience.
d. Email Marketing: Build an email list and develop an email marketing strategy to nurture relationships with potential customers. Use email campaigns to promote relevant ClickBank products and drive conversions.
e. Paid Advertising: Consider utilizing paid advertising channels, such as search engine marketing or social media advertising, to reach a broader audience and drive traffic to your affiliate links.
ClickBank provides ample opportunities for beginners to earn significant commissions by promoting digital products in their chosen niches.
Keywords: ClickBank, affiliate marketplace, digital products, information products, product categories, niche selection, product evaluation, content marketing, email marketing, paid advertising.
Overview of ShareASale’s affiliate network
ShareASale is a leading affiliate network that connects affiliates with merchants across various industries. It offers many affiliate programs, making it suitable for affiliates in diverse niches. ShareASale provides a user-friendly interface, robust reporting tools, and reliable payment systems, making it an attractive choice for beginners.
Highlighting top merchants and product categories
ShareASale hosts a wide range of top merchants across various industries. Some popular product categories include fashion and accessories, home and garden, health and wellness, and technology. Affiliates can explore these categories to find merchants and products that align with their niche and target audience.
Tips for maximizing earnings on ShareASale
To maximize earnings on ShareASale, consider the following tips:
a. Merchant Selection: Evaluate merchants based on commission rates, conversion rates, and average order value. Choose merchants that offer competitive commissions and have a strong reputation.
b. Deep Linking: Use deep linking to direct visitors to specific product pages or promotions on the merchant’s website. Deep linking increases the chances of conversions by providing a more targeted and relevant user experience.
c. Promotional Content: Create high-quality and engaging content that effectively promotes the merchant’s products. Use a mix of informative articles, product reviews, and visual content to attract and convert your audience.
d. Exclusive Deals and Promotions: Negotiate with merchants to offer exclusive deals or discounts to your audience. Exclusive promotions can incentivize your audience to purchase through your affiliate links.
e. Build Relationships: Establish a strong relationship with the merchants you promote on ShareASale. Regularly communicate with them, provide feedback, and collaborate on promotional strategies. Building rapport can lead to more personalized support, exclusive offers, and earning opportunities.
ShareASale offers a robust platform and a wide selection of merchants, making it a suitable choice for beginners to start their affiliate marketing journey and earn commissions in various industries.
CJ Affiliate (formerly Commission Junction)
Introduction to CJ Affiliate and its key features
CJ Affiliate, formerly Commission Junction, is a reputable affiliate network connecting affiliates with a diverse range of advertisers. It is recognized for its extensive network of well-known brands and offers many products and services to promote. CJ Affiliate provides advanced tracking and reporting tools, reliable payment systems, and dedicated affiliate support.
Exploring the diverse range of advertisers and products
CJ Affiliate hosts various advertisers across various industries, including fashion, technology, travel, finance, and more. Affiliates have the opportunity to promote products and services from renowned brands, allowing them to leverage the trust and recognition associated with these companies. The network provides access to a diverse range of products, allowing affiliates to choose offerings that align with their niche and target audience.
Strategies for success with CJ Affiliate
To succeed with CJ Affiliate, consider the following strategies:
a. Niche Alignment: Select advertisers and products that align closely with your niche and target audience. Focus on promoting offerings that resonate with your audience’s interests and needs, increasing the likelihood of conversions.
b. Quality Content Creation: Create high-quality content that showcases the benefits and features of the products you promote. Use engaging copy, visuals, and multimedia elements to captivate your audience and compel them to take action.
c. Optimize Campaigns: Continuously monitor and optimize your campaigns to improve performance. Analyze data provided by CJ Affiliate’s reporting tools to identify trends, track conversions, and make data-driven decisions. Adjust your promotional strategies, targeting, and messaging to maximize your earning potential.
d. Explore Commission Opportunities: CJ Affiliate offers various commission structures, including pay-per-sale, pay-per-lead, and pay-per-click. Evaluate the commission opportunities different advertisers offer and select those that provide competitive rates and align with your earning goals.
e. Leverage Affiliate Support: Take advantage of the affiliate support offered by CJ Affiliate. Contact your dedicated affiliate manager for guidance, advice, and assistance in optimizing your campaigns. The support team can provide valuable insights, promotional materials, and additional resources to help you succeed.
CJ Affiliate presents a range of opportunities for beginners to partner with well-established advertisers and promote high-quality products. By implementing effective strategies, affiliates can maximize their earnings and build a strong foundation in affiliate marketing.
Other Prominent Affiliate Programs for Beginners
Rakuten Marketing (formerly LinkShare)
Rakuten Marketing is a well-established affiliate network that offers a wide range of affiliate programs across various industries. It provides access to many advertisers, making it suitable for affiliates looking to promote diverse products and services. Rakuten Marketing’s platform offers advanced reporting tools, reliable tracking, and timely payments, ensuring a seamless experience for affiliates.
eBay Partner Network
The eBay Partner Network allows affiliates to earn commissions by promoting products on the marketplace. With millions of products available, affiliates can choose items that align with their niche and target audience. The program offers competitive commission rates and provides access to various marketing tools and resources to support affiliates’ promotional efforts.
Shopify Affiliate Program
The Shopify Affiliate Program enables affiliates to earn commissions by referring new customers to the popular e-commerce platform. You can promote Shopify’s user-friendly website builder and comprehensive e-commerce solutions as an affiliate. The program offers attractive commission rates and provides affiliates access to marketing materials, tracking tools, and dedicated support.
Awin is a global affiliate network that connects affiliates with advertisers worldwide. It offers affiliate programs across multiple industries, allowing beginners to explore various niches. Awin provides robust tracking and reporting capabilities and access to promotional materials and support from a dedicated account management team.
FlexOffers is an affiliate network that offers a wide selection of affiliate programs from different industries. It provides affiliates access to various products and services to promote, allowing for flexibility in niche selection. FlexOffers offers competitive commissions, advanced tracking technology, and a user-friendly interface to help beginners maximize their earning potential.
These prominent affiliate programs allow beginners to monetize their online presence and earn commissions by promoting products and services. Each program offers unique features, various advertisers, and resources to support affiliates’ marketing efforts.
Essential Tips for Affiliate Marketing Success
Building a strong online presence and personal brand
Building a strong online presence and establishing a personal brand are crucial for affiliate marketing success. Create a professional website or blog that reflects your niche and expertise. Consistently publish valuable content and engage with your audience to build trust and credibility. Establishing yourself as an authority in your niche will attract more visitors and increase your chances of converting them into customers.
Creating high-quality content to attract and engage users
Content is king in affiliate marketing. Focus on creating high-quality content that is informative, engaging, and valuable to your audience. Use a mix of written articles, videos, infographics, and other forms of media to cater to different user preferences. By providing valuable content, you can attract more traffic, increase user engagement, and boost conversions through your affiliate links.
Leveraging SEO techniques for better visibility
Search engine optimization (SEO) drives organic traffic to your affiliate website. Conduct keyword research to identify relevant keywords and incorporate them strategically into your content. Optimize your website’s on-page elements, such as meta tags, headings, and URLs. Build quality backlinks from reputable websites to improve your site’s authority and visibility in search engine rankings.
Utilizing social media and email marketing for promotion
Social media platforms and email marketing are powerful channels for promoting your affiliate products. Build a strong presence on relevant social media platforms and engage with your audience by sharing valuable content, promoting offers, and responding to their inquiries. Additionally, leverage email marketing to build a subscriber list and send targeted campaigns that showcase affiliate products and exclusive offers.
Tracking and analyzing affiliate performance
Regularly track and analyze your affiliate performance to identify areas of improvement and optimize your strategies. Utilize the tracking tools provided by affiliate networks or use third-party tracking software to monitor clicks, conversions, and earnings. Analyze the data to identify top-performing campaigns, optimize underperforming ones, and make data-driven decisions to maximize your affiliate marketing success.
Staying updated with industry trends and adapting strategies
Affiliate marketing is a dynamic field, so staying updated with the latest industry trends and adapting your strategies is essential. Keep an eye on emerging products, new affiliate programs, and changes in consumer behavior. Stay informed through industry blogs, forums, webinars, and networking with other affiliate marketers. Adapting your strategies to align with industry trends will help you stay competitive and maximize your earning potential.
By implementing these essential tips, beginners can pave their way to affiliate marketing success. Building a strong online presence, creating quality content, leveraging SEO, utilizing social media and email marketing, tracking performance, and staying updated with industry trends will contribute to your long-term success in the affiliate marketing industry.
Recap of the key points discussed
Throughout this blog, we have covered various aspects of affiliate marketing for beginners. We began by explaining affiliate marketing and its potential for newcomers in the field. We emphasized the importance of choosing the right affiliate program and discussed factors to consider, such as relevance to your niche, commission rates, cookie duration, and affiliate support. We then highlighted some of the top affiliate programs for beginners, including Amazon Associates, ClickBank, ShareASale, CJ Affiliate, and Impact. We explored the unique features, notable advertisers, and strategies for success in each program. Additionally, we provided insights into other prominent affiliate programs like Rakuten Marketing, eBay Partner Network, Shopify Affiliate Program, Awin, and FlexOffers. Lastly, we offered essential tips for affiliate marketing success, including building a strong online presence, creating high-quality content, leveraging SEO techniques, utilizing social media and email marketing, tracking performance, and staying updated with industry trends.
Encouragement and motivation for beginners to start their affiliate marketing journey
For beginners considering affiliate marketing, now is the perfect time to embark on this exciting journey. Affiliate marketing offers immense potential for earning passive income and building a successful online business. By following the following strategies discussed in this blog, you can build a strong foundation for your affiliate marketing endeavors. Remember, success in affiliate marketing requires dedication, perseverance, and continuous learning. Stay focused, create valuable content, engage with your audience, and adapt your strategies to stay ahead in this dynamic industry. Don’t be discouraged by initial challenges or setbacks; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement. As you gain experience and build your online presence, you will witness the rewards of your efforts.
So, take the leap, choose the right affiliate program, and start your affiliate marketing journey today. With determination and a commitment to excellence, you can achieve remarkable success and unlock the incredible potential of affiliate marketing.